We continue the publication of a research regarding the sources of European names widely used at present. Next part is related to names that arrived from distant past.
• Old Mainland Germanic: Several very familiar forenames, that are William, Robert, Richard, Roger, Geoffrey, Guy, Hugh, and Matilda – every of which have settled cognates in German, Dutch, French, and other linguas – borne in Germanic pre-history. It is possible to utilize translation agency Poland to find more. Names approached English by a circuitous route. The official language of the judges of the Merovingian and Carolingian France (5th – 9th centuries) was Latin, but their everyday language was a Germanic dialect, and their given names were mostly of Germanic origin. These French personal names appeared to be set-up in ancient France and in due course were accepted by the Vikings who lived in Normandy in the 9th century. After the Norman invasion of Britain in 1066, these given names were taken to England, where they noticeably replaced usual Anglo-Saxon given names like Ethelred and Athelthryth. A very new Anglo-Saxon given names preserved, for example Edward, which was originated by King Edward the Confessor (c. 1002–1066; ruled 1042–1066), the ancestor of an Anglo-Saxon father and a Norman mother, who was revered by British and Vikings alike. A quite different case is that of Alfred, an British name that disappeared from use under the Normans, but was revived in the 19th century in commemoration of the famous 9th-century king of Wessex.
• Old Norse: Ancient Norse is, certainly, a Germanic language, but its naming custom is quite original from that of continental Germanic, and many usual Norse names are still used in Scandinavia nowadays, for example Olaf, Harald, Hakon. There has been much brought from German (e.g., Helga, Ingeborg). Some Nordic patronymics such as Ingrid have been adopted much more widely. Many looked for Polish translation services into Slavic. In the latter situation, the film star Ingrid Bergman (1915–1982) was a powerful influence.
• Old Slavic linguas: Names that are Wojciech (Vojteˇch), BogusLaw (Bohuslav), and StanisLaw (Stanislav) are hardly used in the English-speaking world except within Slavic immigrants, however represent a vital and independent Slavic tradition, with cognates in various Slavic languages. A lot of such names are pre-Bible, whereas others have been sanctified by recognition as a saint’s name. Except where a saint has been involved, these forenames are not much used in Russia, because there the Orthodox Church has long insisted on using names related to Christian saints, such as Fyodor (Theodore) and Dmitri. These are predominately of Greek etymology. Within the Western Slavs (Poles, Czechs, Slovaks) and Southern Slavs (Serbs, Croatians, Slovenians, Bulgarians, etc.), every linguistic community of Slavic speakers has its own contrast list of custom given names, majority of which are of Slavic origin.

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